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Magazine of Cartography

 

 

 

 

 


Geodata

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

   

Map Ukraine. Natural and man-made emergency situations by region from 1997 to 2006


Mapping object and metrics

The map is compiled on the basis of statistical data that has been verified by estimating and counting emergency messages in the media.
        The object of study is the emergency situation that occurred on the territory of Ukraine during 1997-2006. An emergency situation is an unfavorable event: an accident, catastrophe, an epidemic, a natural disaster, a massive plant or animal disease, a major fire, the use of a means of destruction, which have led to a violation of the normal living conditions and activities of people on objects or territories covered by this event or objects or territories that are affected by this event, which has or may lead to human and material loss.
        The map allows you to assess the risk of emergencies in any administrative area of ??Ukraine and get an idea of ??the types of threats and their probabilities that arise in the regions.Indirectly you can determine the sensitivity of the regions to various threats, in addition to considering the physical and geographical map of Ukraine, a map of industry or population density.
        This cartography reflects the main types of hazards of a natural and man-made nature, and also allows you to identify the tendencies that form the greatest threats.It is also possible to establish the main laws and specifics of the situation regarding the security of regions with different types of economic specialization.We can identify the specifics of the localization of threats and the level of sensitivity to them at the mesorregional and local levels.
        The map is designed to improve the system of prevention and response to natural and man-made hazards, to identify areas for improving the risk management mechanism at the state and regional levels, to form new managerial approaches and specific means of their implementation.
        When considering the map, one can assess the correctness of their own associations regarding the regional peculiarities of the distribution of risks of emergencies and the number of emergency situations.
       The map's contents are shown using two mapping metrics.The first - the total number of natural and man-made emergencies in each region of Ukraine.Map cartographic image: cartogram.
       In general, Emergency Situations (NA) during the specified period arose within the regions relatively evenly.The number of natural and man-made NPs within the region does not correlate with each other, to a certain extent they have a reverse dependence.Only in some areas (for example, in Lviv) the number of HCs of both types is high.This is due to the large number of industrial enterprises and relatively complex natural conditions (mountainous relief, high rainfall).
       For the convenience of reading cartograms, 5 gradations of saturation of dark yellow color are selected, depending on the number of emergency situations.The intervals are rounded for easy reading:
        - up to 100;
        - from 101 to 125;
        - from 126 to 150;
        - from 150 to 200;
        - over 200.
        The second indicator allows you to get a more accurate idea of ??the object mapping.It is shown by a round two-part map diagram.The first one shows the quantitative correlation between the following types of man-made emergency situations:
        - transport accidents;
        - fires and explosions;
        - sudden destruction of buildings;
        - accidents on life support systems;
        - accidents on power systems;
        - emergencies with emission (threat of release) SDS (highly active poisons);
        - the presence in the environment of harmful substances beyond the maximum permissible norm.
        The second (right) part (half-circle) of the chart reflects natural emergency situations:
        - geological;
        - meteorological;
        - hydrological;
        - fires in natural ecological systems;
        - medical and biological diseases of a person;
        - infectious diseases and poisoning of animals;
        - defeat of agricultural plants by diseases and pests.
        The size of each part of the card reader transmits the number of emergency situations in the area.For more informativeness, each half of the kartdiagram displays the number of NA.For greater readability, larger ranges boundaries are set: 50;100;150;200.
        To display the contents of the map (emergency situations), color associations are taken into account.For example, the dominant color used to fill the regions - dark yellow (not blue or green) is generally associated with the mapping object.At the same time, the latter is not a strong stimulus (unlike red or orange) and does not interfere with the perception of the content of the work.
        The same principle is based on the choice of color gamut for the transmission of emergencies:
        - red for traffic accidents;
        - orange for fires and explosions;
        - violet (unexpected) for the sudden destruction of buildings;
        - body color for accidents on life support systems;
        - light blue for accidents on power systems;
        - dirty yellow transfers an accident with the release (a threat of emissions) SODOR (highly active poisonous substances);
        - light green (as opposed) for the presence of harmful substances in the environment above the maximum permissible norm.
        Natural disasters have more clearly defined associations:
        - brown (gray) for geological emergencies;
        - blue for meteorological;
        - blue for hydrological;
        - orange (orange) for fires in natural ecological systems;
        - light yellow for medical and biological diseases of the person;
        - light green for infectious diseases and poisoning of animals;
        - dark green for diseases of agricultural plants with diseases and pests.
        The position of cartograms is chosen so that they cover at least the contours of the base.At the same time, their geographic binding should be associated with the whole region, and not the regional center.Between the portions of the cartogram, there is a gap that characterizes the different content shown by these figures.The percentage of accidents or emergencies of a certain type from their total number can be obtained from the length of the corresponding arc.No digital values ??are specified, which may complicate the perception of a small number of HCs of a certain type.


General geographic and thematic content of the map

The map is created using a geographic basis of 1: 5 000 000 scale. The geographic binding of the phenomenon does not require special precision.Therefore, the basis performs a more aesthetic role.It shows:
        - the state border of Ukraine;
        - Ukraine's regions of the oblast.The intensity of the pouring of their areas is a figurative means for representing the total amount of natural and man-made phenomena of extreme events;
        - cities of state subordination Kiev and Sevastopol;shown similarly to areas;on them separately are given characteristics according to the number and structure of the National Assembly;
        - regional centers shown by the Punchons, their signatures are submitted;
        - the main rivers with the signatures of their names;
        - seas, main lakes, canals and reservoirs without signatures;
        - islands and braids;
        - the frame, the name of the map and its scale.

Download the card: only a raster copy of its low resolution is available on the site

 

 
 
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