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Sets of geospatial data for geoinformation analysis


Problem: Geospatial data is required for geospatial data processing

      Work with data that has a spatial bind, is characteristic of many types of human activities. The emergence of open geographic information systems (QGIS, GRASS, gvSIG, SAGA, etc.) has made geospatial data available to a wide range of specialists and amateurs.

      Tourists, military, sociologists, agronomists, teachers are increasingly using geoinformation services, and, most importantly, they want to demonstrate personal achievements.

      Earth science specialists use geospatial data to execute orders, research, and present their own results. Typically, the process of collecting primary data is well worked out for geographic sciences. However, the obtaining of practical results and conclusions, as well as their publication, include the analysis, interpretation and visualization of the collected information. The basis of these processes is a spatial analysis, which requires the geospatial information about geographic components on the research site.

      For example, to identify the flood zone, you need data on the relief and rainfall. For the selection of landscapes, we need information about its main components: water objects, soils, vegetation, relief, etc. In addition, these components are displayed on the maps along with the thematic load (work results), serve as their confirmation and justification.

      Thus, we will call geodata ordered, integral, structured information about the components of the geographical environment. These include: map of Ukraine's forest cover, detailed map of soils, hydrographic network of Ukraine, settlements of Ukraine, city boundaries, administrative map, etc.


The difference between geodata from cartographic basics

      The geodata can be presented in various forms. For example, information about the relief of Ukraine can be stored in the form of horizontal lines (isogipse), altitudes, regular and irregular digital terrain models (grid and tin) or continuous surfaces, strokes of the slopes. All of them are correct, correct and mutually interconnected.

      Cartographic bases are sets of mutually agreed, generalized, and concatenated components of the geographical environment that are needed to understand and geographically map the thematic load.

      Unlike a mapping basis, the geodatabase is mainly described by only one component of the landscape (natural or anthropogenic). For example, a hydrographic map of Ukraine is a linear watercourse with a certain level of content detailing and generalization of contours. It shows all the rivers of Ukraine within its territory with the correct topology and generalization of the contours, which corresponds to a certain scale.

      Some geospatia sets describe several components of the geographic environment. However, all geospatial data sets combine a single destination - they serve to process geospatial spatial information.


Problem formulation

      More precisely, this problem is formulated as the need for ready-to-use, topologically agreed and semantically correct, topical geographic data with attribute information on the main components of the geographical environment. These data should be presented in a convenient format and in several public formats. That is, they are adapted for use by specialists who do not possess the latest achievements of geoinformatics.

      Today, specialists in engineering geographic specialties can comment that geospatial data can be downloaded at different geoportals. For example, technically it is possible to access and download the digital model of Ukrainian relief in the form of a map of heights (8- or 16-bit raster) or full-color GeoTIFF on a certain territory, limited by two values ??of latitude and longitude.

      Problematic is the practical use of these "raw" data, that is, converting them into geoinformation system format and transforming to the desired form. For example, it is not easy to convert DEM in DEM format into GeoTIFF, and convert the latter into a horizontal one.


Lack of spatial data infrastructure

      Other inconveniences can be noted. So far, the infrastructure of spatial data has not been created in Ukraine, although work in this direction was started back in the 2000s. On foreign sites, geodata on the territory of Ukraine is often absent at all. In addition, the description of the latter and the instructions for their use are given in English, which further reduces the chances of a specialist to solve their problem.

      A library of geospatial databases was created to facilitate the work of the authors of the "Cartography Timepiece". In order to receive them, you need to contact the editorial office.

      For authors, their cost is included in the payment of the article. After submitting the article to the editorial office, the cost of the purchased geodata is deducted from the payment of the article.

      When ordering, we will try to clarify the purpose of using geospatial information and, if possible, suggest a better way of working. That is, the authors of the collection can consult the editorial staff on issues that arise during the research.

      On the other hand, it's not necessary to write a scientific article to use the location library. The cost of most geospatial sets is comparable to the cost of an article and amounts to 100 to 500 UAH. The cost of typing in a certain territory is half the size regardless of its last.

      Also, at the request of the customer, we can complete the location set, convert it to the desired format and send it by e-mail or transfer personally.


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