The digital cartographic basis of the territory of Ukraine in MapInfo format (TAB) of scale 1: 500 000
The following terms are equivalent: digital cartographic basis, digital map.
The digital cartographic basis of the territory of Ukraine is intended for the production of a map of a scale of 12,000,000 – 1: 500,000 and cartographic bases for geo-referencing the content of thematic maps and atlases. Also it is possible to make the digital model of relief on all territory of Ukraine or its part. The pointed digital map can also be useful for carrying out scientific research, performing cartometric operations, drawing up technical projects and other design and projection works using spatial information.
The total size of all its layers is more than 200 MB. These data are not available for download on any Ukrainian or foreign site, because in Ukraine it is not created an infrastructure for spatial data, in contrast, for example, for Canada.
The digital cartographic basis was created and edited in the MapInfo program, in its native format, TAB, respectively. If necessary, you can convert it to ArcGIS (ArcINFO) SHP format or AutoDesk Map (DXF) exchange format using MapInfo Universal Translator or the built-in tools of the specified programs.
The base consists of 23 layers. Each layer is full, consists of 4 or 5 files; this is not a saved query.
The sources of vector information for it were:
- Open street map (Open Street Map – OSM);
- data from the radar satellite survey of the earth's surface, on the basis of which the horizontals are drawn;
- space images to verify the correctness of the contours.
When designing the contents of the cartographic basis, the provisions of the information classifier displayed on topographic plans of scales 1: 5000, 1: 2000, 1: 1000 and 1: 500 are taken into account. The latter is approved by the order of the Main Directorate of Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre under the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 25 of 9.03. 2000). Layer objects can be identified by this classifier.
The relief on this cartographic basis of Ukraine is transmitted by contour lines and elevation marks recorded in one file. The horizontals are placed at the beginning of the file, so if necessary, you can select them and save them separately or use the SQL query.
Files with a relief occupy a total volume of more than 40 MB. The horizontals are drawn every 10 m. The elevation marks in the planned position are placed arbitrarily and relatively evenly over the territory of Ukraine, their height is determined with an accuracy of 1 m. The file contains 40 000 horizontal lines and twice as many elevations (figure 1). Horizontals, drawn through every 100 m, made thickened.
Objects that are not expressed in the map scale are presented in a separate file. The first include ravines and gullies, karst and pseudo-karst craters, rocks and rocky cliffs, mounds and hills, cliffs.
The layer with populated areas includes the outlines of all cities, urban-type settlements (smt) and villages of Ukraine (figure 2). The layer contains only polygons, the filling of which for convenience in use is represented by different color tone depending on the type of settlement. Polygons are digitized in sufficient detail so that the settlement can be recognized by its outline and relatively accurately defined its area.
There are names in Ukrainian, Russian and English only for some localities on the OSM map. The rest of the information was entered manually. Also indicated is the type of settlement and the administrative district to which the latter belongs. In the table of attributes, in addition to the names of settlements, the official statistics on the population are presented. Since the statistical data are incomplete, for some settlements this demographic information is absent (mainly for small villages).
The layer of regions contains 24 regions of Ukraine and the outlines of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. The contours of the regions are topologically consistent: there are no loops, intersections, and other topological errors. Also, the limits of the regions are coordinated with the hydrography (in the part where the boundaries of the regions pass along the rivers). The Mykolayiv region contains a part of the Kinburn Peninsula.
The table of attributes of areas in its structure is similar to the table of settlements. But there are differences, in particular, for each region indicated the administrative center of the region.
All objects, regardless of the nature of the localization, do not go beyond the borders of Ukraine. There is no border itself, but it can be created from the external administrative boundaries of the regions, by combining the latter with the help of the "Merge" command.
The layer in which the administrative regions are preserved, according to the structure and according to the schedule, is similar to the layer of regions. In total in Ukraine at the time of creating this framework, there were 495 districts (figure 3). The outlines of the latter are completely consistent with the contours of the regions, the layer is correct topologically. Names in a foreign language are transmitted by transliteration according to the rules adopted at that time. Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on January 27, 2010 No. 55 "On the Ordering of the Transliteration of the Ukrainian Alphabet in Latin" defines other rules for transliteration, which can be considered the main shortcoming of this cartographic basis.
The digital map of Ukraine contains a separate file with regional centers, localized in points. The structure of the attributes of the layer is quite simple: the number in order, the name of the city and the population. Simferopol and Sevastopol are submitted to the ARC. The position of the regional centers coincides with the official, that is, not the centroid of the polygon object corresponding to it, but coincides with the location of the main post office.
For most cities and urban-type settlements, it was rational to keep the building blocks, since the latter fill the empty space inside the city. This increases the aesthetic properties of the created thematic maps. Attributive information for this layer is missing.
The hydrography layer consists of area and linear objects (figure 4). To the linear are the rivers, their tributaries and canals. The main rivers differ in color from the secondary ones. Some canals and sewer rivers are isolated against a general background. Part of the rivers that are expressed in the scale of the map, as well as lakes, ponds, reservoirs and seas are transmitted by closed polygons. The main objects of hydrography are signed in two languages ??- Ukrainian and Russian. Less significant objects in hydrographic terms have no name. Between the rivers and their parts, as well as between the main channel and tributaries, as well as the ends of linear and polygonal objects, the correct topological relations are realized: the ends of these objects adjoin each other and to the polygons. To simplify the implementation of topological relations, objects were digitized in one layer.
The soil layer is compatible with topographic maps: there are sands, solonchaks and solonetzes. For each object, you can set the type of soil, for example, stone monolithic surfaces differ from sands both with conventional designation and attributes.
The road layer is quite detailed – in fact, this is the main information in OSM. All roads are divided into 3 types:
- highways with improved coverage;
- motor roads of regional and local significance. For convenience, they use different symbols. To do this, all objects that have a certain characteristic of the attribute have been allocated using the SQL query and the corresponding symbol is applied to them. This allows you to work with a digital card in an interactive mode, highlighting manually the necessary objects.
In total, there are more than 30,000 roads in Ukraine (figure 5).
The map shows only wide-gauge railways, unlike more detailed topographic maps. In total we have more than 4,500 objects; apart from the railways proper, it was decided to keep the railway stations in the same layer. The names of railways and stations are signed in Russian and Ukrainian (figure 6).
Global topographic data contains isobaths on the cascade of the Dnieper reservoirs and the coastal part of the Black and Azov Seas. They were allocated on a territorial basis (in Ukraine) and stored in a separate layer. The isobaths denote the depth of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 700 and 1000 m, which is presented in the table of attributes.
For the construction of roads and railways on the territory of auxiliary engineering facilities. Such objects include bridges, tunnels, embankments and excavations, through which roads and, especially, railways are profiled. Bridges and pipes under the roads are used to overcome water obstacles.
The communications network also includes a network of power lines and main substations. This file also includes gas pipelines and oil pipelines, the most significant of which have names in Russian and Ukrainian (figure 7).
One of the most detailed layers is the forest (figure 8). It preserves the areas occupied by forest, forest belts, reserves, borders of forest quarters and other objects. Their purpose can be established using the classifier. Forest files occupy up to 30 MB on the disk. The format of tables MapInfo allows to store objects with different spatial localization in one set. In one layer "Forests" there are polygons (forests dense high-altitude, thin forests high-growth and growth of forests) lines (planting trees along roads and rivers, glades) and points (forests are dense high-stakes, trees that are not expressed on a map scale, trees, the value of the landmark, coniferous and deciduous, numbers of forest quarters).
The output cartographic base also contained areas occupied by various types of vegetation. They were re-stored in a new layer and the conventional signs were chosen so that the latter corresponded as much as possible to the designation on topographic maps (figure 9).
Outstanding buildings and structures that have a sacred significance, namely: churches, churches, kirches; chapels and graves, it was decided to keep separate from the quarterly development in a single layer. All socio-religious objects are shown with dot symbols. Especially a lot of sacred objects in the Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Volyn and Chernivtsi regions, that is, in Western Ukraine.
In the last layer there are data on the geographical position of industrial objects. It's a career; peat development; mines and tunnels, heaps and dumps. As you can see from the list of objects, objects with different spatial localization are stored in the layer: point, linear and polygonal. Pointed the vast majority. They are scattered throughout Ukraine relatively evenly, which indicates the completeness of the data. The conventional designations of industrial facilities with area and linear distribution generally retain their traditional appearance.