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Detailed map of Ukrainian relief in SHP format

        In many industries and professions, there are production processes associated with the collection, processing and interpretation of geospatial data. This is especially true for representatives of natural sciences, or, in other words, for specialists in the Earth sciences. Geographers, geologists, environmentalists not only use geographically bound observational results, but also require specific geographic databases for the analysis and interpretation of the information collected. For example, for the creation of natural phenomena maps, not only data on water objects (water-level data), weather monitoring and climatic characteristics (data from meteorological stations), soil exploration, etc. are needed. For spatial analysis, data on the main components of the geographical environment in the region of work is required. For example, to determine the catchment area of ??the river requires not only the network of its inflow, but also the relief of the territory (preferably in the form of isogipse).

        Name and terminology. There are several synonyms for geospatial data that are described below. The reason for this is the lack of a common definition for a cartographic product, the contents of which consist only of the isolines of the height of the earth's surface (figure 1), since there is no need for such products. Most often, the term "relief map" is used more than 237 000 000 pages found on Google. Less commonly, the "map of the isolines" is up to 218 000. Often (more than 207 000 000 pages found) the term "high basement" is used, but in another sense, as a grid attached to the earth's surface (or in mining) points that have high altitudes. It is worth multiplying the number of specified terms by the number of synonyms of the isoline of the heights of the earth's surface (there are still "horizontal" and "isogipse").

Map of relief of Ukraine in isogypses

Figure 1. Visualization of map of Ukrainian relief in isohypses

         All these phrases in combination with various forms and translations of the keyword "download" (download) is entered by the user in the search engine to find the necessary data. As a result, we get expressions such as "downloading a file with horizontals", "downloading altitude base", "horizontally downloading Ukraine", or "downloading a horizontal map" or "downloading a relief map", etc.

        More experienced specialists search for "shp file horizontally" or "TAB horizontal" file, specifying the file format of the corresponding geographic information system (ArcGIS or MapInfo). However, in this case, searchers are waiting for a complete disappointment - there are no such files on the network.

        Purpose and use potential. The map of Ukraine's relief can be used when creating several types of products.

  1. These general geographic and thematic maps and atlases on the territory of Ukraine and its separate regions, as well as scale maps from 1:10 000 to 1:10 000 000. Generated isogipse is an extremely desirable component of the content for maps of physical geographic zoning, geological structure, mineral resources, hydrogeological conditions, engineering-geological conditions, relief, climatic conditions, surface waters, soils, the allocation of modern landscapes, etc. The following orographic characteristics (the density and depth of the dismemberment of the relief became the basis for the creation of the orographic map of Ukraine.
  2. In addition to the production of classic geographic maps, for displaying and understanding the content of which a high-altitude binding is required, horizontal can become the main source of information for bulk (three-dimensional) models. These include block diagrams, three-dimensional terrain models (natural landscapes or urban spaces), three-dimensional realistic mapping models, and more. These works are intended for creating high-quality visualizations of natural (predominantly) and socio-economic phenomena, creating animations and obtaining realistic landscapes. The main component of these products is a digital relief model that can be obtained from the horizontals; all other parts of the content are consistent with the DIM in height.
    In addition, the relief is superimposed on the texture. Sometimes the isogipse, placed at its height, is a kind of texture, and the raster, imposed on DIM, reflects other subjects.
  3. The relief map of Ukraine can be used for design and settlement works, as well as control over their implementation. For example, digital terrain models made from the horizontal (DTM: tin and grid) can consist of visibility maps, slope exposures, and similar topics.
  4. Of particular importance relief information is for engineering natural sciences (hydrologists, meteorologists and weather forecasters, geomorphologists and geologists). They are the necessary data source for calculating flood plots, introducing corrections in the amount of precipitation, calculating gutter size, determining river basins, calculating the slope exposure for calculating the melting speed of snow, soil erosion, formation of ravines, etc.
  5. The importance of the relief map for the military topography. With their help, the speed of vehicles on rough terrain is calculated, routes of optimal and hidden nomination to the starting positions of technology and living force are calculated.

        Spatial data model (way of presenting information). The relief maps may contain the following data types: points (arranged regularly, unordered or along the horizons), polylines (usually horizontal, rarely strokes or structural lines) or surfaces (irregular tin or regular grid). Each of these forms of relief transmission has its advantages and disadvantages, but the horizontal, according to the editor, is the most convenient. On the one hand, they can be used unchanged in order to display content on the maps, and on the other hand, horizontally with the values ??of height in a semantic table, they can be converted into tin, grid, or altitude map. Height map is a raster image, the color tone or pixel light of which is tied to a certain height value. Also, many three-dimensional graphics editors can be converted horizontally by one operation into Terrain, a synonym for a digital model of relief in 3D modeling. Therefore, the choice of the form of content transfer for a relief map in the form of horizontal lines is justified.

        Origin. The map of the relief is made on the basis of materials of satellite radar shooting of the territory of Ukraine and the digital elevation model (GDEM), taken from GTOPO15, created by the US Geological Survey. As a result of the combination of these data, a grid with a resolution of 50 m was obtained. Horizontals were performed automatically using the Raster> Extraction> Contour tool. The resulting isolines are stored in ArcGIS Shape (* .shp) format, the latter open without difficulty in ArcGIS and QGIS, and can also be converted to the required format using appropriate tools, such as the Universal Translator program MapInfo. The data is completely correct, but to download a file up to 2GB, you need a fairly powerful computer, a more desirable graphics workstation.

        Layer size. The total volume of 5 files that describe the horizontal is about 2 Gbytes. Of these, the tabular data file is 61 MB, the index file is 6 MB. The map includes units of administrative division of Ukraine (regions and districts), city blocks, fragments of the river network, main railways, road network and vegetation. All of them are intended for orientation on the map of heights and to control the accuracy of the latter.

        Description of the relief layer. The total surface of the relief contains more than 700 thousand objects - polylines. Semantics (attribute table) contains 5 fields. The first 2 are standard for shp files. This is FID (contains the serial number of the record - the object of the layer) and Shape - the type of geometry, in this case "Polyline".
The resulting horizontals are separated by height on the main, main thickened, additional and auxiliary. This classification is transmitted in the "Object Type" field. All horizontal, whose height values ??are multiples of 50, are marked as the main thickened ones. However, they are not selected in the file: the standard type and color of the line are used. The main horizontal multiples of 10 m. Additional isolines are usually multiple 5 m. The rest of the horizontals left those whose distance to the neighbors was less than 10 m (figs. 2-3). They could have any height value (with a single sign after a coma) and were labeled "Auxiliary".

Fragment of relief map of Ukraine in isohypses

Figure 2. Fragment of relief map of Ukraine in isohypses


Horizontals and OSM

Figure 3. Isohypses layered on OSM

        In order to ensure the completeness of location data, the field "Topographic code" is added to the layer attributes. The main horizons are assigned a value of 21200000L, a thickened - 21100000L additional - 21300000L and ancillary - 21400000L. Codes are taken from the Classifier of layers, semantic characteristics and objects of topographic maps with a scale of 1: 50,000. The details of the contours for the maps of this scale approximate the details of the resulting layer.

        The last value of the semantic (attributive) table is height. This field was filled automatically in QGIS during isolation.

        The ball of the contours does not contain bergstras (direction indicators of slopes), relief structural lines and other objects that do not belong to the isogipse.
Topology The ball of the contours is deprived of topological errors: the intersections of polylines and self-tangents, horizontally enclosed and coordinated among themselves. Polylines do not contain extra points: the number of the latter depends on the curvature of the horizontal. The average distance between adjacent reference points is 50 m. Horizons are not torn apart at industrial sites, only on the coastline of reservoirs and seas.

        The projection of the layer is established by WGS-84, which is the typical and most commonly used geospatial data on the territory of Ukraine.

        Completeness of data. The relief data cover the entire territory of Ukraine; The extreme points of the objects have the following coordinates: 44.3 and 52.6 north latitude; 21,8 and 40,6 east longitude. The rest of the metadata was not introduced, since the practical benefits of them are questionable. Horizontally available on islands and on the peninsulas. Deleted parts of insulins that were below the water level (within the contours of reservoirs). Inside the small reservoirs of isolines were not removed.

        In addition to the relief layer, there are other layers of data that are intended to provide user orientation and geographic binding of the content content of the maps. These layers were obtained from OSM (Open Street Map).


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