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UDC 551.580

L. Rybchenko, S. Savchuk

Solar radiation and air temperature during periods of intense droughts in 2011-2015

      The purpose of the article is to evaluate the components of the solar radiation regime (direct, scattered and total, albedo of the underlying surface, radiation balance and duration of sunshine) in the conditions of intense droughts and the determination of the deviation of the average maximum temperature in July and in the warm period of the year in 2011-2015 relative to 1961-1990. Drought is a complex meteorological phenomenon due to the prolonged period of increased short-wave solar radiation and air temperature rise, due to the lack of moisture in the air and soil. The study of droughts is relevant because with the increase in the air temperature due to excessive evaporation from the soil surface and transpiration of plants, unfavorable conditions for their development are created. Under such conditions, agricultural plants are damaged and sometimes even killed. During the 22 growing seasons in 1991-2015 there were droughts of varying intensity on the territory of Ukraine. According to the results of the analysis of the solar radiation regime, during intensive droughts covering most of the territory for the decades 1991-2000 and 2001-2010, changes were detected for the components of the radiation regime due to the redistribution of energy potential of the underlying surface. The methods of mathematical statistics revealed that during droughts, the duration of sunshine increases significantly. Fluctuations in the balance of the short-wave radiation and the total radiation balance are registered due to direct radiation oscillations when the state of the underlying surface changes. The average maximum air temperature in the warm period of the year in 2011-2014 increases relative to 1961-1990. The peculiarity of intensive droughts in separate periods of vegetation in 2011-2015 for most of Ukraine is the most significant positive deviation of the individual components of the radiation regime in the north, west, north-east, which was almost not observed in the 20th century. The study of arid phenomena is an important factor of practical importance in addressing issues of adaptation of agricultural production, caused by climatic changes and agrometeorological conditions. In conditions of increasing air temperatures at the global and regional scale, there is a shift of natural zones in Ukraine. Thus, the Polissya zone is contracting and the Forest-steppe and Steppes zones are increasing, which induces the cultivation of crops with proper conditions for other regions not only in moderate latitudes, but in the south and subtropical zones.
      Keywords: components of solar radiation regime, average maximum of air temperature, intensive drought.

Received at editorial April 25, 2019


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