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I. Nesterchuk

Terminology, nomens, escapism and nomadism of the gastronomic tourism

      The behavioral pattern of human in the Post-Modernist period obtains new subjective features, which reflects in the culture of rest and food consumption in exotic, extreme places of the planet. The moral of entertainments is intruded, which is difficult to avoid: available travel costs, minimum risks while travelling, comfort, constant positive emotions. There is no need to spend years of life on journeys; everything is placed within one weekend. The structure of the tourist product is configured so that the accumulated emotions will fit in within a short time, which as a kaleidoscope quickly changes the culture, architecture, gastronomy of the region.
      The result of a large cohort of scientific works speaks for the mobility of a tourist, the speed of acceptance of the tourism product that is of a decorative, sham nature. In order to amaze people, the substitution effect is applied, such as the simulacrum, the creation of a legend or a myth of the locality in order to stimulate flows of tourists. This is particularly with regard to tourists who face a strongly pronounced tendency of local residents of one or another country to take advantage of their stay. The theory of simulacra of J. Baudrillard, presented in the book «Symbolic Exchange and Death» (1976), thrusts itself forward. The best philosophical essence of the concept «simulacrum» is interpreted by the philosopher, historian of the philosophy G. Deleuze – «simulacrum – ... a system in which the different is related to the different through difference itself». G. Deleuze defines the difference as self-sufficient, it self-differentiates, infinitely mutates and transmutes. Thus, the problem area of the research includes the consideration of the simulacrum as a means of constructing the modern cultural reality of the tourist activity.
      Escapism in this source acts not just as the escape from reality to an illusory world, but also as a means of the rest. Thus, the virtual field trip can seem to be the most right way of the escapism, except for the context of such a trip, which does not offer a person an opportunity to travel physically over a distance. The modern space of habitation of humankind is inherited for a cultural situation that pushes it to patterns in behavior, nutrition, gastronomy, rest, the individual identity is lost, which is an existential problem. The individual self-identifies by using the escapism.
      The problem of the «consumer society» that comprises the life-time, when all kinds of the activity are combined with the same problems, looms large. The tourist consumption pattern does not become an exception, which in our opinion is an accentuated problem in academic pursuits of the gastronomic tourism. The tourist rejects the reality, everyday life, settled lifestyle, and thereby they aim for a roving life – nomadism. Over time, forms and essence of the nomadism changed. On the other hand, the nomadism can be similar to meaningless wanderings, the only purpose of which is the continuous variation of locations, the removal of the need to maintain the social regulations and the unwillingness to fix a stable social intercourse.
      Jog by the Internet resources and the mass media to constant movement, perfection, dynamic development, turns the mobility into the inherent worth, statusness, and the nomadism into the merely true way of existence, willingness, displays of which are extremely diverse and unpredictable and can take place in the temporal and spatial dimension, in the objective and social planes, be in demand and original.
      British sociologist J. Urry generally issued a new task of the sociology, a «mobile paradigm», marked the transition of the concepts of «rhizome» and «nomadism» from the philosophical discourse to the social field. The nomadism becomes a certain «ontological absolute».
      A new understanding of the sociocultural reality reveals itself within a framework of the spiritual dialogue of nations, cultures, since the nomadic principle of existence supposes associations of different qualities of people, cultures and traditions of nutrition in one society. Nomads created a new type of civilization – the civilization of space, for which the priority is not history, but aesthetics a priori. Aesthetics of the spirit, aesthetics of possibilities, aesthetics of the nutrition, aesthetics of the rest.
      Key words: gastronomic tourism, terminology, nomen, nomadism, tourist’s impression, simulacrum, escapism.

 

      Introduction

      In scientific literature, it is noted that the scientific and technical terminology is the most developed now. The many-sided and in-depth study of the problems of the terminology of the geographical science and the tourism geography at first hand, namely of its kind of the gastronomic tourism, is still waiting for its decision.

 

      Statement of the scientific problem

      Current developments in tourism, and especially the understanding of the terminology, simulacrum and nomadism, are of special interest for our research. From the viewpoint of such philosophical practices, the gastronomic tourism was not considered.

 

      Recent research and publications analysis

      Terminology was studied by many linguistic scholars, such as D. Hanych [16], S. Bibla [4], S. Bulyk-Verkhola [9], A. Buriachok [10], M. Hodovana [17], H. Dydyk-Meush [ 20], N. Zhovtobriukh [21], A. Koval [25], A. Kostiuk [28], I. Kochan [29], Z. Kunch [32], A. Lytvyn [33], L. Malevych [36], V. Marchenko [37], T. Mykhailenko [39], B. Mykhailyshyn [40], N. Moskalenko [42], L. Murashko [43], H. Nakonechna [44], N. Ovcharenko [46], E. Ohar [47], M. Panochko [48], T. Panko [49], V. Piletskyi [50], O. Pokrovska [51], I. Protsyk [53], O. Serbanska [57], L. Symonenko [59, p. 3, 60], O. Chorna [65], P. Chuchka [66, 67], O. Shpylkivska [69], Ya. Yaremko [70, 71], and others. V. Ivashchenko deals with questions of the Ukrainian terminology [22].
      The works of Ukrainian scholars, such as D. Basiuk [1, 2], M. Bashtova [3], T. Bozhuk [8], A. Busyhin [11], V. Vovk [13], A. Volkova [15], P. Koval [12], I. Komarnitskyi [26], I. Cosmydailo [27], M. Kliap [24], T. Kuklin [31], Î. Liubitseva [35], E. Maslov [38], S. Salamatina [56], I. Rusanov [55], T. Shparaha [68], V. Fedorchenko [62, 63], F. Shandora [24], in publications of Ukrainian magazines became the step towards the accumulation of scientific and practical research of the terminology of gastronomic tourism. They cover the philosophical, historical and cultural, ethnographic context [30, 58, 64], features of the creation of theregional tourist products on the basis of national culinary traditions. Some experts consider the gastronomic tourism as a type of thematic tourism (T. Sokol [61], Z. Kanonistova [23], specialized tourism (V. Fedorchenko [63], I. Minich [41]).
      The discoveries in the foreign scientific community of literature in this area have shown the works of K. Albal, G. Allen (Allen Gary J., Albala Ken, 2010) [73], V. Andrian, E. Wolf (Wolf E., 2006) [78], P. Gikavyi-Zablodskyi, D. Gilmore, D. Getse, D. Dasilva, G. Johnson, G. Zheorhkhe, A. Kawikki, L. Kei, B. Kembron, A. Kovalchuk, I. Krespi, L. Long (Long Lucy, 2004) [76], J. Malek, B. McKercher (McKercher Bob, 2008) [77], R. Mitchell, P. Nistoren, B. Pin, T. Pearson, H. Ridwan K. Santini, A. Stashiak, P. Tudorache, M. Hall (M. Hall and R. Mitchell (C. Michael Hall, R. Mitchell, 2011) [74], D. Henderson, Ye. Charnetska-Skubina.
      The aim of this article is to search the following aspects – how to solve the internal conflicts of the individual, as well as to eliminate the tension in relations with the society, to form a new socio-cultural model of the rest, analyzing such concepts of the post-structuralism as «nomadism» of G. Deleuze, «simulacrum» of J. Baudrillard, «escapism» of V. Volkov.

 

      Presentation of the main research material

      Scientific terminology vocabulary is one of the main lexical components of such functional writing styles as scientific, official, business and journalistic genres. All words belonging to the terminology vocabulary are united in the language of professional communication with the common name «term».
      It is believed that the word «term» first appeared in Germany in 1876. The term is a component of the system of linguistic signs, which serves the sphere of communication in this field together with a commonly used vocabulary.
      The word «term» in Ukrainian linguistics appeared in the eighteenth century. Despite a large number of special works, there is still no exhaustive definition of it in linguistics. Various characteristics of this notion, given in dictionaries, encyclopedias, manuals, and special works on the terminology, indicate on a divergence in the views of scientists in defining the term.
      The term is a concise, accurate definition of the scientific and technical idea. I. Arnold’s statement is successful and it says that the most notable in the style of scientific and technical texts is the use of special terminology. Any branch of the science uses its peculiar terminology, according to the subject and methods of its work.
      The term (from Latin terminus – border, end) is a word or phrase, which denotes a clearly defined notion of a particular field of knowledge or human activity.
      Unlike the common names that are often multivalued and disordered, the scientific term is definite within the area of application.
      According to V. Leichyk, «term» is a lexical unit of a certain language for special needs, which denotes a common (concrete or abstract) notion of scientific theory of a certain field of knowledge or activity.
      Pay attention to the definition of «term» made by V. Tabanakova – a linguistic sign, which shows a special concept in the corresponding system of concepts. In the modern scientific plane, the ideographic description of the term rests on its systemic nature and is implemented in two stages: a formal description of terminology systems and the creation of information terminology dictionaries, such as search thesauruses; thesaurus description of terminology in the natural language for the communicative situation «man-man».
      The concept, named by the word, expresses the essence of the phenomenon, reflects the objective truth; word in the system – logo, term; word as a notation of an object – lexis, nomen.
      At the moment, there is no definitive definition of the term. V. Vynohradov sees the main function of the «term» in the definition of a certain notion. The author’s vision of the term statement, B. Holovin interprets as «a word or phrase that has a professional notion and is used in the process of (and for) learning and mastering a certain range of objects and relations between them – at the angle of a particular profession». O. Superanska adheres to the unanimous opinion – the term is the ratio of the term and the concept, because any science is a clear system of interconnected concepts, the allocation of which takes place on the basis of a scientific generalization of the sign.
      According to the statement «terms» A. Reformatskyi defines «as clear words, deprived of expressiveness.»
The description of the terminology made by I. Ohienko is useful: «The case of scientific terminology is a very complicated and important matter. The terminology does not arise immediately, but usually cultivated by life itself for centuries of spiritual life, needs a state tradition for its establishment.» The movement of science constantly pushes to the emergence of new concepts creates a problem and new nominations that are made by specialists and, therefore, in a certain way, give an urgent subjective character.
      A specious scientific work is the monograph by D. Lotte «Fundamentals of the Construction of the Scientific and Technical Terminology. The Question of Theory and Methodology», which at one time marked the beginning of a deep study of the terminology, its features, systematic terminology, and so on. The author thoroughly outlined such requirements for the term and terminology as the systematic terminology, the independence of the term from the context, the absolute and relative uniqueness of the term, the relation between the meaning of the term in general and the meanings of its components, the accuracy of the terminology and the terminology of the term [34]. In his opinion, the most common way of creating scientific and technical terms is to change the meaning of the commonly used word, and to distinguish the following types of this process: 1) clarification of the meaning of the term; 2) classification change of the meaning of the term; 3) change of the meaning of the term by analogy of concepts; 4) change of the meaning of the term by the adjacency of concepts [34, p. 37-52].
      Monograph of A.P. Koval «Scientific style of the contemporary Ukrainian language. The structure of the scientific text» contains a section devoted to the problem of the term and the word. Relying on the significant scientific developments of domestic and foreign linguists, the author puts forward three important features that can be precisely defined by the notion «term»: 1) the ratio of the term and the concept as the basis for creating the correct definition of the term and for determining its place in the system of terms of the certain branch of science; 2) semantic description of the term as a specific lexical unit (unambiguousness, absence of emotionally expressive and stylistic coloring); 3) the structural characteristic of the term as a specific lexical unit of the Ukrainian literary language [25].
      Analyzing the course of work of A. A. Buriachok, the complex approach to taking into account the main features of the term draws our attention: «Taking into account the following essential features of the term, as: a) its correlation with the notion in the system of a certain field of knowledge, which implies its definition; b) uniqueness within the framework of the terminology in which it operates; c) limited by a certain area of use; d) the absence of emotionally-expressive and stylistic coloring. Thus, the term can be called a word (or phrase), the content of which is revealed by a verbal definition (short definition), which is a linguistic expression of a concept in a particular field of knowledge, such as science, technology, art, socio-political life» [10, p. 14-15].
Fundamental work «Glossary of linguistic terms» by D. Hanych and I. Oliinyk reveals the concept under study as follows: «The term is a word or phrase, expressing a clearly defined concept in a certain field of science, technology, art, social and political life, etc. The specificity of the terms is that they are unambiguous within the terminological system in which they are cohabited, are not context-related and stylistically neutral. Among the terms are words that are used only in a special terminological sense, and words that appear in the terminology and commonly used vocabulary «[16, p. 306].
The accurate definition of the notion «term» is made by L. Poliuha: «a word or phrase, which means the notion of a special field of knowledge or activity»; the author emphasizes the fact that the terms are words that, by their semantic structure, reflect not only the meaning of the lexical-semantic essence, but also express a certain conceptual essence at the same time [52, p. 131]. The scientist emphasizes that the main signs of the term (belonging to a certain system, definition, unambiguousness, semantic transparency, stylistic neutrality and lack of expressiveness) are expressed only in the scientific text.
      The work of G. Nakonechna covers the main parameters of the definitions of terminological units, which are: 1) the parameters of entry into the system. Each scientific definition immediately refers to the concept of being perceptible to the corresponding category of concepts of a certain field of knowledge; 2) component parameter. For many terms, their internal structure is important; 3) the allocation of essential features and properties. Significant can be both internal and external signs; 4) the method of receipt; 5) functional parameter. For many terms, the distinguishing feature is, first of all, their connection with the performance of a certain function, which is reflected in the scientific definition [45, p. 12 – 13].
      The generalized definition of the scientist L. Symonenko draws attention to itself: «the term» is a word or phrase, indicating the notion of a certain branch of science, technology, art, the main features of which are systematicity, conformity with the denoted concept, the existence of a definition, tendency to uniqueness within its terminology field, that is, the terminology of a certain field of knowledge, chastity, stylistic neutrality, accuracy, high informativeness [59, p. 16 – 17].
      The interpretation of the definition of the term according to the author’s opinion in the present context acquires another polystructural content: «a verbal design that does not always have a single meaning, which is stylistically expressive and subjectively filled, characterizing the field of knowledge, activity» (Author – N. I.).
      A term is a special word that has a definition. The specific meaning of the term defined by the term becomes clear only by definition – a concise logical definition that indicates the essential features of an object or the meaning of the concept, that is, its meaning and boundaries.
      Under the condition of accelerated development of a certain branch of science or technology, an active reflection of its achievements by means of mass information begins, the transition of individual terms from a special use to the general, in connection with which the terms lose scientific accuracy, expands the scope of their use. There is their determinism.
      A well-known scientist D. Basiuk gives the definition of «gastronomic tourism» – a type of tourism related to familiarization with production, technology of cooking and tasting of national dishes and drinks, as well as culinary traditions of the peoples of the world [1].
      I. Komarnitskyi uses the term «culinary tourism» as «the ability to outline the value-semantic supermarket of the culture of individual peoples and in this perspective to appear as one of the means of intensifying cross-cultural communication, namely to be a manifestation of intercultural contacts, and as such, to facilitate the establishment of multidirectional communication links» [26].
      T. Kuklina points to the need to create a phenomenon in the tourist market of Ukraine such as «gastronomic tourism» – a kind of tourism, interconnected with the movement of different countries in order to get acquainted with national dishes, products and drinks [31].
      The issues of the prospects for the development of «gastronomic tourism» was engaged by S. Salamatina, who defines it as a type of activity whose purpose is to get acquainted with the ethnic cuisine of the country or region, the main products, features of the technology of cooking, as well as increase the level of knowledge of cooking [56].
      V. Fedorchenko views the prospects for the development of culinary tourism: on a broad cultural and historical background, given the role and importance of food in the genesis of world civilization [62].
Therefore, the study of gastronomic tourism, its functional and organizational structure and regional peculiarities of development is an effective tool for further development of a number of its thematic areas.
      Consequently, gastronomic intelligence transmits in the generalizations of the soul of the era and the people.
      Gastronomic tourism is a sublimation of public values, in particular gastronomy and tourism, which form the images of public memory for the descendants and express not only verbal information about human life, lifestyle, culture of food and rest, but also themselves are capable of generating meanings, symbols and tastes (Author – N. I.).
      On the material of the historical change of the gastronomy of the nation’s repertoire, which according to contemporaries is worthy of memory, one can study the evolution of the human race, in particular the mental traditions of food, which will always be branded things in the system of tourism-related practices.
The phenomenon of gastronomic tourism today is a vibrant social and scientific interest and in foreign scientists, develops in parallel with the growth of public interest in the past.
      Nowadays, the modern tourist industry in its aspiration to attract a consumer often creates an opportunity to travel in an artificial, simulated space: an exhibition or theme park, where a visitor can «visit» in a few countries in one day. Attention is focused on getting experience, saturation, emotions right away, from food to culinary traditions, music, television, entertainment and cinema, today it has become possible to recognize geography, gastronomic tourism as artificially created as simulacrum.
      French sociologist Jean Baudrillard introduced the term «simulacrum» in the early twentieth century to explain the illusory situation or imagination. To begin, we find out the meaning of this term: simulacrum – this particular form of reality, which exists independently, is torn apart and regardless of its prototype [6].
      The corresponding concept has found its application in people, so that the identity is lost. At the present stage of development of J. Baudrillard, a person enters the third stage of the development of simulacra, which are inherent in artificial, not inherent in the nature of human needs. They produce themselves, and ultimately, substitute individual characteristics and traditional values of individual existence of people, reducing personality to the level of mass product. The substitution of the reality by the imagination is obvious: «The very principle of simulation is ruled by us today, instead of the former principle of reality» [7, p. 44].
In a state of uncertainty, there is a modern individual: «Buried in the depths of the media, we can no longer say if something happened or not» [5].
      Mass consumption, not responding to internal needs that are deepened in the individual, only experienced can resist the social organization of life. An individual tries to change his life strategy by breaking social ties at different scales and leveling out the traditional social model.
      Social isolation is possible within the framework of escapism.
      Escapism (from English escape – break free, run) – running from reality, loss of reality [54, 75].
Escapism has a lot of subject forms. One of them is escort tourism. The difficulty of life of the individual, stimulates him to escape from reality. In our opinion, gastronomic tourism will become the newest form of social escapism, when existential motives go to the background, and on the first – a desire to delve into a new culture through the taste of an authentic product, where at the level of consciousness you can feel the influx of energy of other nationalities, to gain new impressions, which will influence further life activity, make reflections on their original, change their personal life strategy. At the same time, relying on the works of V. Volkov, we can see escalating sentiments in tourist practice, «the creative component of travel from the tourist, more often, slips away, it replaces the effect of presence, which is manifested, for example, in chaotic and stereotypical photography on the background of the known memory» points [14].
      An imaginary journey has always been a form of escapism. If in the past the journey was preceded by a story about it, which, with a greater or lesser share of the imagination, was based on this journey, in the era of mass culture and mass media, the order has changed. First, people get acquainted with the possible ways of their tourist trip, get a visual representation of the places where she wants to spend another vacation, and only by comparing the analysis of the attractiveness of these places and the cost of travel, sent for the impressions and pleasures, each of which is listed in the price list services.
      At this stage, there are no in-depth studies of modern Nomadism and its features taking into account the experience of foreign colleagues.
      Today, philosophers from Gilles Deleuze to Jacques Attali – claim that in the coming century the distinction between settled lifedtyle and nomadism will disappear. Everyone will become refugees, or new nomads.
      The most commonly used terms among foreign scientists are the «global nomad», «backpacker», «independent tourist», «digital nomad», and related phenomena «cultural marginal», «marginal mobility», «children of the third culture».
      A number of opinion papers put forward the problem of the impact of technology in planning trips nomads and touches political, economic, sociological and psychological aspects of mobility for living and recreation [6, p. 76]. The subject of psychological work focuses on the identity of the individual. The thematic works touch upon the subject field of the theory of children of the third culture, cultural marginalization, issues of alienation and migration, and the understanding of the expression «I am at home». A large range of articles includes research on the impact of globalization, the latest technology on nomadism. All this suggests that the latest social conditions do not contribute to the establishment of sustainable social contacts, adaptation to new cultures.
Conclusions. In a situation of interaction with the foreign environment, any society is nomadic and moves along with its culture, which explains the existence of the diversity of cultures. The object of gastronomic research is the whole complex of historical associations: paganism and generic structure, dietary advantages and economics. Implicitly assumed that the new model of socio-cultural centers, involves «nomadism», «simulacrum», «escapism» as the correct adapters analytical model of understanding social dynamics mobilistic way of life.

      Ðåöåíçåíò – êàíäèäàò ãåîãðàô³÷íèõ íàóê À. Â. Îðåùåíêî

 

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Received at editorial March 2, 2019

 

 
 
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