Cognitive barrier overcoming during teaching of complicate disciplines for Military Institute students
The article is destined to professionals in cognitive science. It describes the problem of assimilation of complex academic disciplines and professions by non-core audience. This problem is relevant for the young population of Ukraine, as far as modern development of society implies the necessity of acquiring competencies in several unrelated subject areas. These areas include the main profession, the ability to receive sufficient income, the marriage, social realization, ability to solve problems and some others depending on the situation. These tasks must be performed personally because it is extremely difficult to delegate them.
In addition to the above, the students of the Military Institute are required the mastery of several unrelated disciplines, for example higher geodesy. The problem is consists of its assimilation by students who often do not have a predilection for mathematics.
Prior to the study, the author have positive and negative experience in mastering the sciences and disciplines to which he does not have innate inclinations. In addition, this problem is widespread among the population, the proof of which is the popularity of various courses and trainings. Therefore, the semantics of the problem was formulated immediately: źcognitive barrier╗; accordingly the purpose of the article is to search techniques to overcome it.
The research methodology consists in the analysis of previous achievements in scientific works, scientific and methodological teaching literature, questioning of students, scientific and pedagogical workers, review of special literature on cognitive psychology. Also, to solve the problem, it was planned to study the experience of teaching a certain list of disciplines which is hard to assimilation, in particular foreign language, mathematics, chemistry and physics. These techniques should be well-known and uses mainly by private educational institutions or private tutors. The names of these techniques should be included in the promotional materials. It was planned to develop generalizing statements and to adapt these methods for mastering the discipline źHigher geodesy╗ on the basis of the generalization of previously developed methods.
When reading the literature, it turned out that the concept of źcognitive barrier╗, as well as related źcognitive problem╗ are described in many scientific publications, but the methods of overcoming them are not given, as a rule. However, such techniques are provided in a special pedagogical literature, but it is not proven to have a positive effect in most cases.
We considered over 80 sources and more than 40 references are placed in the end of article. The results of the study consist of 10 methods for the cognitive barrier overcoming, distinguished in the process of previous experience analysis. This is a course specialization; selection of effective teaching methods; use of auxiliary and interactive means; źimmersion in the environment╗; abstraction, specification and change in the format of information submission; use of auxiliary models and constructions; a combination of components of cognitive activity; interest increase and motivation; acceleration of work starting; explanation of the material to colleagues. Such methods are effective for a highly motivated and well-developed audience, whose participation expected the establishment of financial constraints of the high cost of courses. Accordingly, for non-core audience, these methods are not sufficiently effective.
The scientific novelty is new methods for cognitive barrier overcoming, on the example of higher geodesy. There are the overcoming of cognitive prejudices; construction of the correct and complete structure of competence; overcoming ontological uncertainty; teaching based on existing experience and competencies; using of auxiliary equipment; mastering the ability to independently build competence and its parts; compulsory implementation of competence.
In general, the cognitive barrier overcoming is realized by reproducing of correct and complete structure of competence, if necessary by the efforts of the student himself.
We were revealed the highly controversial attitude of the specialists towards the obtained results during the discussion of the study, since the ability to overcome the cognitive barrier may lead to a reduction in the need for highly skilled specialists and the proliferation of źamateur activities╗.
It is concluded that the study of most disciplines occurs indirectly, without conscience of its essence, process and methods of studying and memorizing of discipline, only by studying the theory and practicing exercises, relying on already existing cognitive abilities. It reduces the effect of its development and leads to forgetting. This means that the methods of mastering of discipline should be integrated into the training course on it.
Key words: teaching, cognitive barrier, overcoming, cognitive psychology, educational discipline, University of Kyiv, Military Institute.
Received at editorial May 22, 2019