Bialy S., Kroh P.
Institute of Geography, Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland
Application of airborn laser scaning data for reconstruction of old mining routes in the tatra mts., poland
Currently, Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is a technology, that allows for detailed DTM development. Using GIS tools, recognition and very detailed measurements of landforms can be made. The advantage of this technology is that it allows to build a terrain model without vegetation, which is very dense in some places, covers relief and makes impossible to recognize landforms. For this reason extracted ALS bare ground points have been used to construct DTM.
The copper, lead, silver ore were discovered in the Tatra Mts in the Middle Ages, and had been mined for centuries. In the 19th century the most intensive extracting of iron ore took place. Miners used routes and roads, which led from the mines to steelworks facilities or smithies. After the mines were closed down, the roads were used by shepherds, tourists or for any other purposes.
The subject of the study are only unused today old mine roads. They were used until the end of the 19th century or until the 1950s. Mining activity stopped in the 1870s. In 1954 Tatra National Park (TPN) was established and old mine roads are now located within strictly protected area. Natural processes and protection acting caused their renaturalisation. Many of the roads are difficult to recognize or identify in the field [Bialy, Kroczak 2014; Bialy, Kukulak 2014; Bialy 2013]. Roads, that became labeled tourist routes or used until today as forest roads, are not the subject of the study, as their length and location are obvious.
The aim of the study is to reconstruct the network of old mining routes based on cartographical sources and data obtained from ALS. The aim involves: 1) verification and assessment of accuracy in previous cartographic studies and 2) completing skipped sections of the roads and showing detailed map (1:2 500) of old mine road network.
The only two published maps presenting old mine roads are so far available. Used as source: map by Stefan Zwolinski (1:75 000) published in book by H. Jost  and a map by H. Jost and A. Paulo (1:50 000) published in TPN Atlas . Both maps are not precise enough, due to scale, and they are not corresponding to each other.
In the first stage of the research, two source maps were compiled and old roads were drawn on a topographic map (1:10 000) (Fig. 1). As on the topographic map not all roads and routes are shown, vector map (1) was put on DTM. In the second stage digitalization on the DTM has been done. Skipped sections have been completed and courses of roads have been verified. Discrepancies between the topographic map and DTM obtained from ALS reached up to 100m (Fig. 2).
Fig 1. Compilation of the source maps and digitalization
Fig. 2 Digitalzation on DTM obtained from ALS and verifying old mine network: 1-5 – discrepancies between the topographic map and DTM (stage 2)
In result of research a complete map of unused mine roads has been drawn (1:2 500) with their length in total 51,9 km. Previous cartographic studies give length 33,9 km according to the map by S. Zwolinski’s and 27,2 km according to the map in TPN Atlas. Compilation of both maps, including roads marked on both or only on one of them, gives the result of 44,9 km. 9,7 km has not been presented on both maps. These are the final sections of roads that lead to the mines and clearly observed on DTM.
Reviewer – philosophy doctor А. Oreshchenko
Arrived to editorship: October 12, 2018.
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